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Calcifications seen on a Normal Non-contrast Cranial CT

Intracranial calcifications are frequently seen in non-contrast CT scans. These are often due to age-related physiological changes of the brain but can occasionally be mistaken as an intra-cerebral hemorrhage. The most common sites of intracranial calcifications include the basal ganglia (often bilateral,  Figure 1), pineal ...

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Autoimmune Encephalitis

This cranial MRI is from a young woman who presented with low-grade fever, confusion, visual hallucinations and status epilepticus. Significant orofacial dyskinesias and autonomic dysfunction was also noted. Lumbar puncture was performed and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed mild lymphocytic predominant leukocytosis and slightly elevated protein. ...

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Bickerstaff’s Encephalitis

A middle-aged woman was admitted with drowsiness, weakness of all four limbs and visual impairment. Physical examination revealed that the patient had bilateral complete ophthalmoplegia, generalized weakness and spasticity,with brisk reflexes and bilateral upgoing plantar reflexes. A hyper-intense lesion at the level of the midbrain ...

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Hypertonia

In this video, the examiner is testing the tone of the lower limbs. After ensuring that the patient is fully relaxed, he first of all rolls each leg using both hands – one placed above the knee and another below the knee. Then, the examiner lifts up ...

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Up-going Plantar Reflex

[embed width=”480″ height=”560″]http://youtu.be/m85PldREVHo[/embed][embed width=”480″ height=”560″]https://youtu.be/BDDfIli0TkU[/embed] To elicit this sign, the examiner strikes the patient’s sole using a blunt orange stick, starting from the heel, along the lateral border of the sole then medially to the base of the first toe. As one can see from the two ...

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