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Neurological Examination

Professor Shu Leong Ho, Dr Koon Ho Chan, Dr Gary Lau and Dr Gilberto Leung

Introduction to the Neurological Examination

The neurological examination is an important skill to acquire for all medical students. If performed correctly, it can help tremendously to narrow down the differential diagnoses which would subsequently guide investigations and management plan. One important aspect of the neurological examination is to help localise ...

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General Examination

Before touching the patient, it is important and good practice to stand back and spend some time in performing a thorough general examination of the patient. Unfortunately, students often rush into touching the patient, hence often neglecting crucial signs which may lead to the diagnosis. ...

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Positioning and Exposure

Positioning For general examination, examining the cortical function and upper limbs, the optimal position would be to sit the patient upright at an approximate 45-60º angle to the bed (Figure 1). Of course, if the patient is ambulatory, the patient can also be examined whilst ...

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Assessing the Level of Consciousness

Dr Gilberto Leung and Dr Gary Lau Subtitles in English for this video can be displayed by clicking on  (first button on the bottom right hand corner of the video). Our level of consciousness is governed by our cerebral cortex as well as the subcortical ascending ...

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Upper Limbs

Subtitles in English for this video can be displayed by clicking on  (first button on the bottom right hand corner of the video). Inspection of the Upper Limbs After adequate exposure, one should then lay the patient’s arms out comfortably. The examiner should stand at the end ...

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