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Upper Motor Neuron Signs

Hypertonia

In this video, the examiner is testing the tone of the lower limbs. After ensuring that the patient is fully relaxed, he first of all rolls each leg using both hands – one placed above the knee and another below the knee. Then, the examiner lifts up ...

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Up-going Plantar Reflex

[embed width=”480″ height=”560″]http://youtu.be/m85PldREVHo[/embed][embed width=”480″ height=”560″]https://youtu.be/BDDfIli0TkU[/embed] To elicit this sign, the examiner strikes the patient’s sole using a blunt orange stick, starting from the heel, along the lateral border of the sole then medially to the base of the first toe. As one can see from the two ...

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Clonus

In this video, the presence of ankle clonus is being tested. Clonus is defined as a series of rhythmic, involuntary muscular contractions induced by sudden passive stretching of a muscle or tendon. To test for ankle clonus, the leg and foot should be relaxed and ...

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