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Neurology and Neurosurgery

Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis

These two videos are from a middle-aged man presenting with progressive bilateral lower limb and right upper limb weakness for few months. In the first video, there are prominent fasciculations over the entire right upper limb. Whilst in the second video, fasciculations can also be ...

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Hippocampal Sclerosis

This coronal FLAIR MRI is from an 18 year old man who presented with a 5-year history of temporal lobe epilepsy. He would present with an epigastric aura, describing it as a strange feeling which ascends from the stomach, and there will sometimes be an ...

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Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia and accounts for ~55% of all cases of dementia. One to two percent of the population at age 65 will have dementia and the prevalence increases by 15-25% each decade. The neuro-pathological changes in Alzheimer’s disease ...

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Vascular Dementia

Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of dementia and accounts for approximately 10% of all dementias in developed countries. The incidence of vascular dementia increases with age and are associated with common cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia etc.). Patients often present with ...

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Frontotemporal Dementia

Frontotemporal dementia is the most common cause of dementia in patients under the age of 65. There are three different subtypes: 1) behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia,the most common subtype which is characterised by changes in personality and social conduct; 2) progressive nonfluent aphasia – a disorder ...

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