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Neurology and Neurosurgery

Dementia with Lewy Bodies

Dementia with Lewy bodies is the second most common neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, accounting for 15-20% of all cases. This form of dementia is due to an abnormal accumulation of Lewy bodies, which are spherical intra-neuronal protein aggregates consisting primarily of α-synuclein. Dementia with ...

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Parkinson-plus Syndromes

The Parkinson-plus syndromes include 1) multi-system atrophy, 2) progressive supra-nuclear palsy and 3) corticobasal degeneration. Multi-system atrophy Multi-system atrophy (MSA) is a rare adult-onset sporadic neurodegenerative disorder. There are two main subtypes, as identified by its dominating symptomatology. MSA-P is when parkinsonian symptoms predominate, and ...

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Introduction

The major clinical syndromes of central nervous system infections include the following: Meningitis: inflammation of the leptomeninges (arachnoid and pia mater) Encephalitis: inflammation of brain parenchyma Brain abscess Subdural empyema and epidural abscess Suppurative intracranial thrombophlebitis Shunt infection

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Introduction to the Neurological Examination

The neurological examination is an important skill to acquire for all medical students. If performed correctly, it can help tremendously to narrow down the differential diagnoses which would subsequently guide investigations and management plan. One important aspect of the neurological examination is to help localise ...

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General Examination

Before touching the patient, it is important and good practice to stand back and spend some time in performing a thorough general examination of the patient. Unfortunately, students often rush into touching the patient, hence often neglecting crucial signs which may lead to the diagnosis. ...

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