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Ophthalmology

Iris/Anterior Chamber Disorders

Inflammation of the iris – iritis, also referred to as anterior uveitis, can be associated with a number of systemic conditions, the most common being the sero-negative spondyloarthropathies. In uveitis, the signs include ciliary injection, anterior chamber cells, keratitic precipitates on the posterior surface of ...

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Disorders of the Lens

Ageing is the most common cause of cataracts (Figure 1), but a number of systemic conditions are also associated with development of cataracts, e.g. myotonic dystrophy (Christmas tree cataract, Figure 2), medications (such as anti-psychotics causing stellate cataract) and Wilson’s disease (sunflower cataract). Figure 1. ...

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Glaucoma

Dr Jennifer Shum Introduction Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive death of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons, leading to characteristic optic nerve structural damage and visual field deficits. It is the second leading cause of blindness in developed countries. Risk ...

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Hypertensive Retinopathy

Introduction The fundus exam offers a unique opportunity to assess the state of a patient’s blood vessels. Systemic hypertension results in chronic changes, known as arteriosclerosis, which vary in severity according to long-term blood pressure control. A fundus examination is therefore an important exam for ...

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Diabetic Retinopathy

Introduction Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in people less than 65 years old worldwide. It affects 30-40% of patients with diabetes and is associated with an increased risk of life-threatening vascular complications, including acute ...

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